For oriental rugs:
Vacuum once a week or as needed on the face. Once a year, flip your carpet so it is face down on the floor and vacuum the reverse side. Afterwards clean the floor, and flip the rug again to vacuum the face. In order to ensure even wear, you may want to rotate the carpet every several years (3-5 years) to distribute traffic patterns or exposure to direct sunlight. Remember, even wear helps maintain value. To polish the wool of your carpet, walk around the house in socks!
Have your carpet hand shampooed as needed or every 5-7 years. This will help keep your wool healthy and release grit which regular vacuuming cannot reach. Do not use home shampooing services or machine washers as they are far inferior to plant washes and can easily ruin your investment.
For padding / Underlining:
Inspect condition every year and replace as needed. If you have a pad which can be vacuumed, do so every year when vacuuming the reverse of your Oriental Rug. Be sure to rotate your padding if you rotate your rug. Depending on climate and humidity, failure to check on your padding may result to it adhering to your floor and/or carpet. Do not wash your padding more than a spot cleaning with a mild detergent.